Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Review

Autism Spectrum Disorder

The term “spectrum” refers to the wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of impairment or disability that children with ASD can have


Scientists don’t know the exact causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but research suggests that both genes and environment play important roles.

Children with ASD usually have…
1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts;
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities;

Early signs of ASD

1. Social impairment, including difficulties with social communication.

Most children with ASD have trouble engaging in everyday social interactions. For example, some children with ASD may:

a. Make little eye contact
b. Tend to look and listen less to people in their environment or fail to respond to other people
c. Rarely seek to share their enjoyment of toys or activities by pointing or showing things to others
d. Respond unusually when others show anger, distress, or affection.

For Children with ASD, reaching such milestones may not be so straightforward. For example, some children with autism may:

a. Fail or be slow to respond to their name or other verbal attempts to gain their attention
b. Fail or be slow to develop gestures, such as pointing and showing things to others
c. Coo and babble in the first year of life, but then stop doing so
d. Develop language at a delayed pace
e. Learn to communicate using pictures or their own sign language
f. Speak only in single words or repeat certain phrases over and over, seeming unable to combine words into meaningful sentences
g. Repeat words or phrases that they hear, a condition called echolalia
h. Use words that seem odd, out of place, or have a special meaning known only to those familiar with the child’s way of communicating.

2. Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.

Children with ASD often have repetitive motions or unusual behaviors. These behaviors may be extreme and very noticeable, or they can be mild and discreet.

Children with ASD also tend to have overly focused interests.

Remember, no two childen with ASD are experiencing the exact aame thing!

How to help children with ASD:

1. Maintain consistency

2.Avoid making changes, especially in what your child perceives as his or her domain.

3. Understand fixations

4. Speak with your child consistently and carefully

5.Use natural or full spectrum lighting whenever possible

6.Consider noises in the environment.

7.Ensure safety around your home.

8.Understand the use of visual stimuli.

9.Check up on the child’s health with their GP regularly

10. Know the signs of sensory overload.
      a. Meltdowns
      b. Shutdowns

11. Have the attitude that you’re in it for the long haul.

12. Love your child.


b. WikiHow


UPCAT Admissions

Here are the different ways to apply for admission to the University of the Philippines. Remember, we are a state university and it is our priority to get students across the country and not just within NCR.

All the best!


How to Compute Your Grades Based on the New DepEd Order

Infographic n. is a visual and simplified representation of data and information for quick understanding and dissemination.

This infographic explains how to compute for your quarterly grades based on the Department of Education Order no. 8 series of 2015. We just can’t and shouldn’t guess are students’ grades 😀


Downloaded from DepEd Facebook Account

High School Teachers

High School Teachers

One of the things I have been busy with this academic year: my Senior high school students in their NSTP class where they share stories to second and third graders. Teacher Bam and I bring our almost-adult-kids kids to two public elementary schools every Monday to inspire in younger kids the love for and of reading. The thought that I am able to build memories of this sort in my high school students’ hearts and minds makes me grin and smile in a sly way. Well, knowing what being a teenager is all about, the plan is to inspire them to help bring change in our country; but actually the greater plan is simpler: to care for, think of, and spend time with people other than themselves. For now, I think that is more than enough.

I’m making change after all.

Forced Shirt

Less than three week before Christmas break, I found myself buying a shirt from a rather convincing salesman. He gave me a brochure and told me

Here are the products I’m selling, you have to buy and I bet you’ll pick the black diamond soap and the black shirt”

I had to buy. I wasn’t given a choice. Amazed by his style of selling and wondering why he was so sure of what I was going to buy, I said I’ll check it out and tell him the next day. That night after going through the brochure, I grinned as my curiosity was satisfied in a funny way.

The reason the salesman was absolutely sure of what I was going to buy was because  those two items were almost the only items for men.

Amazingly sly and witty for an eight-year old entrepreneur.

Lunch Rants

Crunch time.

Even if I am tempted to list all the things I have been doing since I took certain roles in our department and in the school, I’d rather not.

You see, I have been talking about these roles to myself and my friends a little too often.

  • “I’m stressed”
  • “I’m tired”
  • “This is too much”
  • “Why me?”

The words just keep on coming. What I thought were friendly conversations turned little by little into lunch rants.

Ranting isn’t necessarily evil, in fact sometimes it does help relieve stress. However, everyone has his or her own thoughts and issues. Ranting all the time to your friends is like putting your rants and theirs in a ring and have them wrestle.

Why am I thinking about these things?  Well because my responsibilities have never amounted to this much. I am frantic, nervous and scared that I have been ranting to everyone.

So, I’m going to stop right now (as two cute kids are tapping my table as they enjoy the live music right beside where I’m sitting anyway and my laptop’s moving like crazy. *giggles*).


Because I’ve been given a lot,  and I’d like to believe it means something. I brush it off my stout shoulders and start making the most out of it. I love teaching so I have to love the non-teaching aspect of teaching too!

Sabi na nga ba mali sila noong sinabi nilang walang matutulong ang computer games, kasi ang feeling ko ngayon para lang silang side quests sa Diablo o Pokemon kung saan marami akong makukuhang EXP points o di kaya tataas ang chance na makakuha ako ng mga rare weapons. 

The Rain, My Students, Literature, and Water in my Head

In the past year, I have been learning about literary criticism and theory. I was forced to know who Spivak, Damrosch and Hunt are. I was taught that everything is discourse, a play of power and knowledge according to Foucault. I was made to evaluate representations, deconstruct narratives and construct and reconstruct canons.

I don’t know, but learning about these things also made me think I’m a superhero. Suddenly, I was equipped with different perspectives to view my world–which is mainly teaching children. Suddenly, though I may be in the bottom of the class, I felt I had more power to save the world, to change it.  Suddenly, politics and economics are involved. Suddenly, life’s issues aren’t just life issues anymore. I was starting to learn new things. Uncovering information that could very well protect me against baffling concepts or help me understand them.

And then I got my heart broken.

I am no superhero after all.

I forgot that learning about how the world works will not make you immune to unfathomable sensations such as pain within. That after all, I am still an individual who can get—well, wet.

It is raining so I decided to use Shel Silverstein’s poem in my class today. Though literature isn’t Darna’s stone or Peter Parker’s spider bite, it is still respite from inner chaos that I am sure even Spivak, Damrosch and Hunt cannot explain, or even problematize.


byShel Silverstein

I opened my eyes
And looked up at the rain,
And it dripped in my head
And flowed into my brain,
And all that I hear as I lie in my bed
Is the slishity-slosh of the rain in my head.

I step very softly,
I walk very slow,
I can’t do a handstand–
I might overflow,
So pardon the wild crazy thing I just said–
I’m just not the same since there’s rain in my head.

After the giggles of my grade 2 kids as they imagined the rain overflowing in the author’s head, I asked them to wear their jackets and to get their umbrellas.To their delight, I brought them outside and together we read the poem under the  “slishity-slosh” and pattering of the rain.

Right now, my thoughts are a puddle of questions, but for now my student’s laughter, their merry water splashing, should suffice in bringing peace in my head. Then again, maybe putting water inside my brain is still the better option. Then all I have to do is to step very softly, walk very slowly, and avoid doing a handstand.